The peace that comes from balance and flexibility represented by two tongues of fire balancing, surrounded by a flexilbe ring of bamboo.
Arlington Budoshin JuJitsu Dojo: Self Defense for the Rest of Us
Terminology — K
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English: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

counting | pronunciation | request a term | sources



1. [Common Usage] heel
2. heel
3. (ka-ka-toh) “heel of the foot”
kakato ate


9. heel strikes
kakato fumikomi


1. [Karate] stomping heel kick

1. [Common Usage] hair
2. ‘Hair’
11. hair (head)
12. hair

1. [Common Usage] Shinto deity
2. ‘Above’, ‘Those who are above’; also ‘Spirit’. This is the general name given to all the divinities and spirits of Shinto, who personify the elements, trees, mountains and other natural phenomena. They also play a part in the supernatual experiences of exceptional human beings.
10. In ordinary use, the spirits, divinities and deities of Shinto, a major Japanese religion. The kami guide their followers. Often these spirits are ancestors, but the word also refers to objects in the natural world as well as inanimate objects. In its less usual sense, it means anything subline, as in an exceptional being or an impressive object.
11. god
12. god, deity
see also: Wikipedia

11. paper
12. paper
kami basami


see also: kani basami
1. [Judo] scissors throw
see also: Wikipedia
kami basami


12. paper clip


1. [Common Usage]
  1. (lit. Divine Wind) the name given to a typhoon that prevented the Mongol invasion of Japan in 1280
  2. a name given to the suicide pilots of the Tokotai (Special Attack Units) of World War II
2. Literally, ‘divine wind’. This expression was used to describe the storm which destroyed the Mongol invasion fleet in 1281 when it was sailing toward the island of Kyushu, Japan. ‘Divine wind’ was the name given to the Japanese suicide pilots who deliberately crashed their aeroplanes, loaded with high explosives, on to the decks of American warships towards the end of the Second World War. In general, the amount of petrol in these aeroplanes was insufficient for them to be able to return to base. By extension, the expression is used to describe anyone who undertakes a spectacular enterprise or risks his life. In fact, the ideal of all the Samurai through the ages was to become a kind of ‘Kamikaze’.
10. Though most often identified with Japanese pilots on suicide missions in World War II, the term, meaning “divine wind,” actually refers to an unquenchable spirit, the lack of concern about personal well-being and a strong regard for the situation of others. It was used in this sense as early as the thirteenth century.
  1. divine wind
  2. name given to suicide pilots in World War II
see also: Wikipedia
kami shiho basami see also: kami basami, kani basami
2. [Judo] Upper strangulation of the four ‘quarters’ using a ‘scissors’ hold. Part of the groundwork (Ne-waza).
kami shiho gatame


1. [Judo] upper four-corner hold
2. [Judo] Locking of the upper four ‘quarters’. Tori holds Uke largely by pressing his or her body down on Uke’s. One of the techniques of groundwork (Ne-waza) techniques.
7. locking of upper four quarters
9. Top Four-corner Hold
While kneeling above your opponent’s head, you grab his belt with both hands under his upper arms and press your body down on his.
10. [Judo] Upper Four Quarters. A hold down used against an opponent on his or her back. From above, one grabs the opponent’s belt with both hands, one arm tucked under the opponent’s shoulder, and one’s head resting on the opponent’s chest.
see also: Wikipedia
kami tori
1. [Aikido, Judo, Ju-jutsu] seizing the opponent by the hair
2. [Aikido, Ju-jutsu] ‘To seize by the hair’. The defensive techniques used against this form of attacker are as follows; they are called Mae Kami-tori and Ushiro Kami-tori.
10. [Aikido, Ju-jutsu] Defense techniques (with several variations) used against hair grabs.

2. crab
11. crab
12. crab
kani basami


see also: kami basami
2. [Judo] A Sutemi technique called ‘crab-scissors throw’.
3. (ka-nee ba-sa-mee) “crab scissors” A judo throw that takes its movement from the crab grasping a prey in its pincers.
9. Scissors Throw
From the right natural posture, break your opponent’s balance to his rear. Jump in close to his right foot. Stretch your right leg across his stomach and your left across the back of his knees. Throw him backwards.
10. Scissors Throw. A technique that uses the practitioner’s legs like scissors to unbalance the opponent, who falls to the side.


2. joints, knuckles
kansetsu waza


1. [Judo, Aikido] joint-locking techniques
2. [Aikido] Techniques of twisting and locking the joints of the arms; in particular the elbow and wrist joints. These include the elbow techniques (Hiji-waza), armlocks (Ude-Hishigi and Ude-garami) and wristlocks (Tekubi-waza) divided into Kote-hineri and Kote-gaeshi.

[Judo] Techniques of bending the joints of Uke’s limbs during groundwork (Ne-waza) using locks, and thus immobilizing him or her. Typical technies are:

Ude-garami, twisting the arms
Ude-gatame, twisting locks, arm bent
Ude-hishigi, locks in a position of hyperextension
Hiza-gatame, locks in a position of hyperextension, using the knee
Waki-gatame, locks in a position of hyperextension, using the armpit
Hara-gatame, locks in a position of hyperextension over the stmach
Ashi-garami, leg locks

See also Kami ...

3. (kan-seht-soo wa'za) “locking techniques” A collective term for techniques exerting pressure against various joints of the body — the arms, fingers, ankles, wrists, knees, and spine. In judo competition, only armlocks are permitted since an application of pressure against other joints is considered too dangerous.
5. joint-locking techniques
6. Joint technique
7. art of bending and twisting the joints
9. joint techniques
10. [Judo] arm lock techniques
see also: Wikipedia

1. [Common Usage]
  1. to test
  2. learning
2. face
4. face
kao tatake


4. Face Attack
An attacker has knife pointed at your throat, and you are backed up against a wall. Quickly bring your right hand up under his knife hand with your palm facing you, and cup his elbow with your left hand. Quickly turn to your right, bringing the back of your right hand up against his knife hand, knocking it to your right. As you turn your right hand to grab his knife hand at the wrist, roll his elbow upward. Continue the elbow roll, slamming his face into the wall. Grab his hair with your left hand and pull back, throwing him to the ground.

see also: garami
1. [Judo, Aikido] to entwine; a twisting or curling action used when immobilizing the opponent

1. [Judo, Ju-jutsu] defense, stable, rooted
4. grappling
see also: Wikipedia
katame no kata


2. [Judo] In the techniques of the Kodokan, these are the forms concerned with control of an opponent, or Katame.
3. (ka-ta'meh noh ka'ta) “forms of grappling and holding” The second judo kata consisting of fifteen techniques from the art of grappling. Katame-no-kata is divided into three sets of techniques: osae-waza (holding techniques), shime-waza (strangling techniques), and kansetsu-waza (locking techniques), with five model techniques chosen from each set. These movements were selected as the most pertinent examples to explain the theory and practice of effective grappling.
5. prearranged forms of groundwork comprised of holddowns or immobilization methods, necklocks, and methods of bending and twisting the joints. This kata is made up of 15 techniques.
7. Grappling Forms
10. A formal series of techniques used for controlling an opponent, including strangulation and joint lock techniques, of which five are performed.
see also: Wikipedia
katame waza


4. Holding or immobilizing techniques
3. (ka-ta'may-wa'za) “grappling techniques” One of the three basic groups of techniques constituting judo.
7. technique of clinching or immobilization; groundwork
9. grappling techniques
see also: Wikipedia


1. [Common Usage] one-handed; using only one hand
2. ‘A single hand’
katate dori


See also: gyaku katate dori
1. [Aikido] to grab one of the opponent’s hand with a single hand
2. [Aikido] A technique in which Uke grasps Shite’s left wrist with the right hand, from the front, or the right wrist with the left hand.
3. (ka-ta'tay do'ree) “one-hand seizure from side”
  1. The ninth judo technique of ju-no-kata, the forms of gentleness.
  2. The single-hand hold of judo, a technique of koto-hodoki, the wrist-releasing techniques
9. one-hand hold
10. [Aikido] katate tori one hand hold
1. [Common Usage] training, instruction
2. ‘Training’ designed to perfect oneself in an art or technique in order to surpass (Kei) whatever has gone before (Ko).
3. (kay'koh) “chicken-beak hand”
  1. A kung-fu hand technique in which the tips of the fingers are held firmly together and used in a thrusting or snapping motion, usually to a target area of the face. This technique is also used in numerous styles of karate.
  2. “training” or “practice” In kendo, there are three main types: gakari-geiko (attack practice) in which a kenshi practices continuous attacks, gokaku-geiko (equal practice) in which two kendoka of equal ability practice in the atmosphere of a real match; and hikitate-geiko (assistant practice) in which a senior works with a junior while fighting.
7. practice, as opposed to contest
10. Training in general, but with the intention of continually trying to improve, whether through repetition, practice, or study of other techniques and theory.
1. [Common Usage] training uniform
2. Uniform for training in the martial arts in the Dojo, called by different names according to the art concerned: Ju-dogi, Karate-gi, Aikidogi, etc.
3. (kay'kohi-gee) “practice uniform” A name often used by martial arts practitioners when referring to their practice outfits.
7. practice costume
1. [Common Usage] kick
2. [Judo] Application of Tori’s foot on Uke’s knee, to upset his or her balance.
3. (keh-ree) “kick” or “kicking”
10. [Judo] The act of pushing the opponent’s knee with one’s foot to knock him or her off balance.

[Karate] kicks

2. (-gesa) ‘Lapels’, ‘Across’; also translated as ‘Scarf’ (see Kesa-gatame).
7. scarf, eg., kesagatame
kesa garami
2. [Judo] Control and immobilization of Uke, across his or her body.
kesa gatame

see also: gesa gatame
1. [Judo] scarf hold; a basic pinning technique
2. [Judo] Scarf hold. Control across Uke’s body.
3. (keh'sa ga-ta-meh) “scarf hold” A judo pinning technique in which an opponent is pinned by the first judo technique of katame-no-kata.
7. scarf hold, one of the methods of immobilization in groundwork
9. see: hon-kesa-gatame.
10. Known as the scarfhold in Judo. Same as gesa-gatame.
1. [Common Usage] the energy of life, breath, intention; referred to as qi in Chinese.
2. The concept of Ki is one of the most important in Japanese philosophy. It directly concerns everyone’s daily life, since it is nothing less than the vital energy of that life. In Chinese philosophy, the equivalent concept is known as Qi (Ch’i); an energy whose ‘home’ is the Dantian (Tan Tien) point, located in human beings below the navel. Dantian is often translated as ‘cinnabar field’. A similar concept is found in Indian philosophy in the idea of Prana, and in Judaeo-Christian tradition the word ‘soul’ has some affinity to these three Far Eastern expressions. Although the Chinese and Japanese concepts are very close to one another, the equivalence of the other two is very much open to question, and represents merely a convenient peg on which to hang the concept rather than an exact counterpart. As the concept of Ki is found at the root of all Japanese activities, it is also found at the root of all the martial arts (Bujutsu and Budo). The nature of this universal and fundamental energy is such that it penetrates everywhere, uniting all the manifestations of the universe, visible or invisible. It is a creative energy, the divine ‘breath’ in every being, which appears as active attention, concentration, mental force and can, according to certain writers, be ‘projected’ outside oneself — by means of the Ki-ai, for example. M. Random writes: ‘Thought energy or “conscious energy” produce a vibratory field which operates in an alchemical way, in the sense that it “crystallizes” or manifests certain subtle properties which are characteristic of this vibrating field’. Thus: ‘To take oxygen from the air is a spontaneous act, but to bring a particular form of attention of the mind to this act means that the attention potentializes the air molecules more intensely, giving them a different quality. It is indeed the “Art of Breath”.’ The Ki, then, results from a potentiality of the universal energies. Whoever uses the power of Ki may do so in a positive or negative way, for its manifestation is what man makes of it. Nowadays, one would say that a man or woman has weak Ki (Yowaki) or a strong Ki (Tsuyoki) depending on whether the personality was weak or strong. To unite the Ki (see Aiki) with the Hara, the physical and psychological centre of an individual, is thus synonymous with concentrating a subjective form of this universal energy in oneself. The result of such a concentration is to produce bot a great psychic force (personality, character, determination) and, at the moment when it is released, instantaneous physical power. It is accepted that the concept of Ki, whatever its scientific basis, is, for the Japanese, a day-to-day reality. The use of Ki is primary in achieving results in very diverse aspects of life, notably in the martial arts. See Aiki, Ki-ai, Hara, Haragei, Kokyu, Ki-no Michi.
3. (kee) “spirit” Ideally, the mental and spiritual power summoned through concentration and breathing that can be applied to accomplish physical feats. This centralized energy, possessed by every person, can be manifested through the practice of just about any martial discipline, particularly those subscribing to a sophisticated study of physiology.
4. inner spirit

[Ki] is considered to be the source of power or energy in the human body, the cause of momentum when the human body directs itself towards a goal. Metaphysical tradition holds that one’s ki is located approximately one to two inches below the navel at the hypogastrium or saiki tanden (lower stomach). That is where the center of our energy or center of gravity is located. It is the focal point for many jujitsu techniques.

Ki is also energy directed from the body. This concept is especially true in aikido and the many te waza (hand techniques) of jujitsu. In using these techniques the student directs his ki through his body and out through his fingertips in order to execute what appears to be effortless defenses against an attacker while not actually grabbing the attacker’s arm or hand to execute one of many responses (a release, hold, takedown, throw, or come-along).

5. The vital energy that flows around the body.
10. Chi refers to the life force or vital energy of life. In China, this concept is call qi or chi and in Korea and Japan, it is called ki. Chinese, Korean and Japanese ideas regarding the chi are nearly identical. The Indian term, prana or pranja, has some connection to the idea of the soul. This life force is located in the abdomen (the hara) where it is controlled by the breath. Thus, the proper use of the chi is one of the reasons why correct breathing is fundamental to the proper exercise of the martial arts. Some styles, such as Wushu, emphasize breathing more than others. Chi is the essential force that unites all things. In this way, it is more than just personal energy. As a creative and active force, it can be summoned through the shout or kiai. It can make a person more powerful than physical strength alone can. It is thought that one’s chi can be seen in one’s personality, and in all outward actions. It somehow reflects the inner person. Strong chi is therefore the equivalent of good character. Chi is an important concept in the Asian philosophies that underlie the martial arts, which is why it is a principle central to so many martial arts styles.
1. [Common Usage] unification of the energy/vital spirit; usually done by means of a loud shout while performing a technique.
2. ‘The meeting together of energy’. This is ‘the cry which gives life’, sometimes regarded as the manifestation of the Active Principle (Aiki) of the universe. According to E.J.Harrison, it is ‘the art of perfectly concentrating all one’s energy, physical and mental, upon a given object, with unremitting determination, so that one achieves one’s goal’ (see The Fighting Spirit of Japan, London, 1913). It is the shout made at the moment of attack, akin to the sound uttered by a lumberjack, butcher or any tradesman who uses blows in his work; when a particularly difficult piece of material has to be dealt with, he may utter a sound to give added force to the blow. When the Ki-ai is uttered by a martial artist, the vibration of the sound may momentarily paralyse the opponent’s functioning and render him or her more susceptible to an attack. Although reports of the effectiveness of the Ki-ai have been published, its action has never been clearly demonstrated except to show that it has the effect of surprising an opponent. This fact should not lead one to conclude that the claims made concerning the Ki-ai are invalid. The Ki-ai enables a person carrying out a violent movement to purify his mind of extraneous thoughts, leaving simply the pure energy (Ki) which causes him to act, and confers upon him all its intensity. The efficacy of the shout depends upon the mastery of certain appropriate breathing exercises (see Kyoku), analogous to the Pranayama of the Hindus.

The contention by Japanese martial arts experts that the Ki-ai enables one to liberate mental and physical force very rapidly, and so influence another who is in close proximity, explains why the Ki-ai is sometimes used in resuscitation techniques (Kuatsu). Kuatsu can be employed by black belt martial artists to bring back to consciousness anyone who has been strangled or subjected to a sudden shock. Certain martial arts masters maintain that there are three or four kinds of Ki-ai: low and weightly at moments of action, high and piercing with a cry of victory, normal for purposes of resuscitation, and silent (Kensei) in certain meditation exercises. It is thus very similar to Aiki. See Ki, Aiki, Hara, Haragei, Kokyu, Nogare, Kotodama.

3. (kee'eye) “spirit meeting” A loud shout or yell of self-assertion most common to the Japanese and Okinawan martial disciplines. It is a method in which the shout, in conjunction with the expulsion of air, can reinforce a striking technique by maximizing bodily strength.
4. shout, literally, (spirit meeting)

An essential aspect to the development of ki is your kiai, more commonly referred to as a loud, aggressive yell. There are numerous reasons for developing a good kiai. Practically, a kiai draws attention to your situation. Secondly, it should scare your attacker. Lastly, a good kiai makes it possible for you to completely extend your ki to control the attacker’s ki when the situation warrants.

7. (pronounced "Kee-eye") shout supposed to emanate from the lower abdomen (saika tanden or shitahara)
10. In the martial arts, a shout is made at the moment of attack, at certain points during the performance of a form, and just before breaking a board or a brick. It is the vocalization of chi, or vital energy, and it serves to surprise an opponent, allowing an extra moment of attack. It also serves to summon energy and to focus a person’s thoughts and energy. The ability to perform an adequate shout depends on appropriate breathing techniques.
kizami tsuki
1. [Karate] jabbing punch
2. [Karate] a hook punch delivered directly facing an opponent.
8. Jab
10. This technique can be delivered with either the left or the right hand. The fist makes a horizontal arc and lands without fully extending. The shoulder moves and propels the arm, instead of the arm straightening out to deliver the strike.
1. [Common Usage] heart, spirit, soul
2. This means the heart, spirit, soul of a person or thing. Also Shin. In Chinese and Japanese thinking, the seat of the spirit is in the heart, not in the head, which houses only intellect. Kokoro thus represents the essence of a man or woman or, indeed, of a thing: the absolute reality. In any art, martial or otherwise, a disciple will succeed only if he or she is filled with Kokoro — or, in other words, if he or she has sacred fire and puts his or her heart to work. Kokoro is thus a form of dispassionate passion, or action without looking for beneficial results. If a Budoka has fought a good fight, and loses, this should not be a cause for regret but on the contrary a cause for rejoicing; for this defeat, when it is clearly understood, is nothing less than a source of learning. The battle has been waged not to win a prize, not to win at all costs, but to conquer oneself. It is said that then one has Kokoro. This is the essence of pure love.
10. Essentially, heart or spirit. A martial arts practitioner can understand techniques and can possess great talent, but if he or she does not also possess kokoro, he or she is not a true martial artist. Kokoro requires complete commitment to the martial art. It is perseverance, dedication and the willingness to continue striving even after failure or defeat.


2. ‘Within’, ‘Against’
1. [Bu-jutsu] classical martial arts traditions or schools


1. [Common Usage] waist, hips
2. [Judo] Refers to the hips, which act as a support or pivot in certain throws such as Haraigoshi.
3. (koh'shee) “ball of the foot” or “hip(s)”
4. hip
koshi nage see also: o goshi
1. [Common Usage] hip throw
2. [Aikido] A series of throws using the hips.
4. ‘hip throw’
10. [Aikido] A series of hip throws that defend against basic grips.
koshi waza
3. (koh-shee wa'za) “hip techniques” Throwing techniques employing principally the hips or waist which are used in judo, jujutsu, aikido, and karate.
9. hip techniques
10. [Judo] Any of a series of hip throws. The hip is pushed against the opponent’s abdomen and the opponent is raised and pulled over the hip. These are the most popular throws used in competition.



1. [Common Usage] forearm
2. ‘Forearm’. The part of the arm between the elbow and the wrist. See also Ude.
3. (koh-teh) “wrist”
  1. Two large heavy gloves worn by kendoka to protect their hands and lower forearms.
  2. In kendo, the wrist as a target area.
6. wrist
7. wrist
10. Forearm guards.
kote gaeshi




1. [Aikido] a technique in which the opponent’s wrist is twisted outward in order to throw him to the ground
2. [Aikido, Ju-jutsu] Movements involving a grip on the opponent’s wrist with the left hand and a push with the palm of the right hand which bends the joint of the wrist inwards towards the forearm. This bending action can be normal (towards the inside) or reverse (towards the outside).
5. bend the hand at the wrist as if to make the fingers touch the inside of forearm
6. kotegaeshi Pressure is applied to the attacker’s wrist by the defender crossing his thumbs on the back of the attacker’s hand. The wrist is pushed towards the attacker’s biceps, then the hand is turned 180 degrees towards the thumb.
7. “Wrist turning” Tori reaches with his right hand and places his thumb on the back side of Uke’s left hand while taking a firm grip with his fingers on the palm of Uke’s left hand. Assist with left hand.
10. [Jujutsu] Techniques of self defense that are executed by grabbing the opponent’s wrist and manipulating the joint.

[Aikido] Wrist turn out. An exercise done to increase flexibility and to learn basic techniques.

see also: Wikipedia
kote mawashi



2. [Aikido] The second move (Nikyo of the Katame-waza (twisting the wrist inwards) used against an attack such as Mune-dori, Shomen-uchi or Shomen-tsuki.
see also: Wikipedia
1. [Common Usage] neck
2. neck
4. neck
7. neck
kubi nage
1. [Sumo] a neck throw
2. [Judo] a throw using an arm-hold round the neck and a lifting action of the hip.
[Sumo] a throw in Sukui-nage using a grip round the neck.
4. neck throw
Block your attacker’s [right] punch outward with your left forearm as you step in with your left foot. Slide your left hand down his arm and grab his sleeve while bringing your right hand up inside his left arm. Strike the side of his neck sharply with your cupped right hand just below the ear and step in with your right foot. Pivot back on your left foot as you pull your attacker’s right arm with your left hand and continue the motion of your right hand, turning to the left, bringing your opponent down.
kubi shioku waza


4. side neck standing submission
Your attacker attempts a stab to your middle. Step away from the upward swing by moving your left foot back as the attacker swipes and steps forward. Bring your right arm up under his right arm with your body next to his right side. Bring your right arm across to his left side, palm down, and reach around his back with your left hand. Keeping his knife hand up by pinning his upper arm against your head and shoulder, make a fist with your right hand turning palm down. Clamp your left hand over your right forearm palm down. Bring your right forearm sharply against the side of the attacker’s neck below his ear with your radial styloid process (lower forearm), striking his neck. Pull towards you with your left hand. Make sure that your forearm is parallel to the side of his neck and perpendicular to his body. Maintain pressure until he drops the knife.
kuruma see also: guruma
2. wheel
[Judo] A vertical turning movement of the body.
9. kuruma-daore Wheel Throw
Your partner approaches you from the left rear and tries to twist you down by pushing forward and downward on your right shoulder with his right hand while pushing back against your left shoulder with his left hand. Without resisting, pivot on your left foot and bring your right foot around until you face him. Move your left foot to the left, grab his left upper arm near the armpit with your right hand, and slip your left hand through his right armpit, placing it on the back of his right shoulder. Pull him to the front with both hands and throw yourself backward. Your partner flies directly over your head.
kuruma-gaeshi Wheel Throw
Your partner rushes at you to push you backward. Just before his hands meet your shoulders, put your hands on his upper arms from underneath, step in past his right foot with both your feet, and throw yourself backward.
2. From Kuzureru
  1. modified, as in hold or throw
  2. break down, eg., kuzure kami shiho gatame - broken upper four quarters
kuzure kesa gatame
2. [Judo] A technique of groundwork (Ne-waza) by which an opponent is controlled from the side.
9. Variation of Scarf Hold
These hold-down techniques are performed in ways that make them different from the basic hon-kesa-gatame.
  1. From your opponent’s right side, trap his right arm in your left armpit and slip your right arm under his left armpit. Extend your right leg forward and your left leg backward. Use the right side of your body to apply pressure and hold him down.
  2. With your left arm over your opponent’s right shoulder and behind his neck, grip his left collar. Put your right thigh under the back of his head. Reach your right hand under his left armpit and grip the back of your right knee. Your left leg is stretched backward and you apply pressure mainly with the right side of your body on his right shoulder.
  3. Hold your opponent’s left arm with your left arm going over his left shoulder and under his left armpit. Take hold of the right side of his belt with your right hand. With your right leg extended forward and your left backward, press down on his left shoulder with the right side of your body.
10. A technique for controlling the opponent by trapping the opponent’s shoulder and arm.
2. to fall
11. vb.
  1. collapse; be destroyed
  2. lose shape
12. to go to pieces, collapse, give way; to get out of shape.
1. [Common Usage] disequilibrium, to break the opponent’s balance
2. ‘Loss of balance’. In hand-to-hand combat, to throw an adversary one should, ideally, be able to turn his or her own attacking force against him or her (Sen-no-sen). Sometimes it is necessary to use one’s own force (Go-no-sen) to achieve this, and sometimes a combination of the two methods may be used. It is thus a matter of maneuvering oneself into a position from which a throwing action (Kake, Nage-waza) can be conveniently executed, before one obtains a good Kuzushi. The whole art of provoking Kuzushi is of obliging the opponent to lose his or her balance through a shift of the opponent’s centre of gravity. The shift of the centre of gravity (Hara) is best and most often produced by a turning movement (Tai-sabaki in Aikido) or an evasive movement in Judo. See Kurai.
3. (koo-zoo'she) “breaking” or “upsetting”. In judo, the act of disturbing or breaking an opponent’s posture or balance before committing oneself to the actual attack. There are eight basic ways of unbalancing an opponent in judo:
  1. ma kuzushi (breaking forward)
  2. ushiro kuzushi (breaking backward)
  3. hidari kuzushi (breaking to the left)
  4. migi kuzushi (breaking to the right)
  5. migi-mae sumi kuzushi (breaking to the right front corner)
  6. hidari-mae-sumi kuzushi (breaking to the left front corner)
  7. migi-ushiro-sumi kuzushi (breaking to the right rear corner)
  8. hidari-ushiro-sumi kuzushi (breaking to the left rear corner)
7. off balance. See Hoppo-No-Kuzushi
9. breaking balance
10. “Breaking” the opponent’s balance — that is, off-balancing the opponent to make a throw easier to effect, as in Judo.

see also: obi
1. [Common Usage] level, class, rank; used to indicate ranks below black belt; many styles start at nine or ten and work up to one, although most begin at 6th Kyu.
2. The lower grades of the martial arts, below black belt. There are nine in Karate, six in Judo and other disciplines. People who have Kyu grades are called Mudansha, ‘without Dan’.
3. (kyoo) “grade” A rank designation signifying a level of achievement below black belt or dan rank in the Japanese and Okinawan martial disciplines. In most of these disciplines, the kyu grades progress upward from eighth, the lowest, to first kyu, the highest (some arts such as aikido have only five kyu grades). These grades precede the dan (rank) degrees which designate black belts.

The kyu ranks are:

  1. hachikyu (eighth grade)
  2. shichikyu (seventh grade)
  3. rokkyu (sixth grade)
  4. gokyu (fifth grade)
  5. yonkyu (fourth grade)
  6. sankyu (third grade)
  7. nikyu (second grade)
  8. ikkyu (first grade)

The color of the belt worn by the kyu grade student becomes darker as one progresses toward black belt. While numerous variations exist today, the most popular belt colors representing the kyu grades are, respectively: white, yellow, orange, blue, green, purple, brown. Some styles designate kyu grades by the use of colored tips or strips at the end of their belt, instead of changing the color of the whole belt.

7. class, grade, rank below black belt (mudansha), e.g.:
  • rokkyu-6th class
  • gokyu-5th class
  • yokyu-4th class
  • sankyu-3rd class
  • nikyu-2nd class
  • ikkyu-1st class
8. Colored belt rank
9. class
see also: Wikipedia

2. The whole range of lower and higher grades in the martial arts. This system of grades is used in all Budo to indicate the level of technical ability reached by Budoka. When a Kyu or Dan grade is conferred, a diploma, Gaku, signifies its validity, and the name if the student and the grade are recorded in a central register. The Kyu grades are generally considered learning grades; the Dan grades are for improving and perfecting skill. The number of Dan grades varies from five to twelve, according to the style. The highest grade is usually reserved for founder of a school or style, and his successors. He is frequently referred to as Sensei, Teacher, meaning the teacher; but other instructors are also addressed as Sensei. These are the names generally used to describe the ascending progression of Dan grades:

1st Dan: Sho-mokuroku
2nd Dan: Jo-mokuroku
3rd Dan: Hon-mokuroku (consisting of one or two grades)
4th Dan: Hon-mokuroku, Shi-han, Renshi
5th Dan: Menkyo or Tasshi (recognized as ‘master’ level)
6th Dan: Menkyo, Kyoshi, etc.

The title Kyoshi is given to those who have gained 6th and 7th Dan; that of Hanshi to those who have gained 7th or 8th Dan; that of Shihan, ‘great expert’, to 9th Dan grades. The attribution of Shihan sometimes varies from school to school and may be given to other Dan grades, as well as those listed here. Students who are below black belt grade and have only Kyu grades are called Mudansha. Yudansha and Kodansha are the names given to those students who are black belt grade of 3rd Dan and above. The title of Kaiden is rarely bestowed on anyone, as it means ‘equal to the master’. See Menkyo, Kyu, Obi and the titles listed.

Dan grades are themselves qualified or given ‘values’ as follows:

1st Dan: student (Sen)
2nd Dan: disciple (Go no Sen)
3rd Dan: accepted disciple
4th Dan: expert (Sen no Sen)
5th Dan: expert (Kokoro)
6th Dan: expert (Kokoro)
7th and 8th Dan: expert (Iko-kokoro)
9th and 10th Dan: master (Iko-kokoro)

The title of Hanshi is reserved for the Kokoro grades, that Kyoshi for the expert instructors, and that of Renshi as an indicator of self-mastery. Hanshi is only an honorary title, and is given to the master (Iko no Kokoro) by his own pupils or disciples.

10. The entire system of classifying martial artists according to belt rank.
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